Self-Concept, Self-identity, and Social Identity
- Self concept = self construction, self identity, self perspective, self structure = who am I = gender, race, status, etc
- The role of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control in self-concept and self-identity
- Self esteem = how you feel about yourself
- Self efficacy = your confidence in succeeding
- Locus of control = who controls your fate
- Internal locus = you control your fate
- External locus = others, luck control your fate
- Different types of identities (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, class)
- Race/ethnicity = color/culture
- Gender = your masculinity/femininity
- Sexual orientation = who you are attracted to
- Age = how old you feel
- Class = how rich you are
Formation of Identity
- Theories of identity development (e.g., gender, moral, psychosexual, social)
- Moral = Kohlberg = development of moral thinking by cognitive reasoning, resolving moral dilemmas and the concept of right and wrong.
- Preconventional morality (preadolescent): centered on consequences
- Obedience: fear of punishment
- Self-interest: desire to gain reward
- Conventional morality (adolescent): social roles
- Conformity: seeks approval of others. Eg. Good boys don’t steal.
- Law and order: social order. Eg. If everyone steals, then society wouldn’t function.
- Postconventional morality (adult): social rules
- Social contract: individual rights. Eg. Everyone has a right to live.
- Universal human ethics: abstract principles. Eg. Bribing the teacher for a good grade just feels wrong...
- Psychosexual = Freud = our sexuality and libido (sex drive) influences our psychology, and manifests differently as we develop. Fixation (overindulgence or frustration) during a stage leads to problems later on.
- Oral state (0-1): we like to feel orally, like sucking, biting, putting things in our mouth. Fixation at this stage leads to excessive dependency later on.
- Anal stage (1-3): we like to feel anally, like defecating. Fixation can lead to excessive orderliness or sloppiness.
- Phallic stage (3-5): males love mom and envy dad (Oedipal conflict). Females love dad and envy mom (Electra conflict). To resolve these conflicts, the child identifies with the same-sex parent and focuses energy on other things like school.
- Latency stage: upon resolution of the Oedipal/Electra conflict
- Genital stage: enters heterosexual relationship starting at puberty. Sexual traumas in early stages lead to homosexuality, asexuality or fetishism.
- Psychosocial = Erikson = social interactions shapes psychology. Conflicts caused by social demands causes problems later on.
- Trust/mistrust (0-1): can I trust others? Conflict leads to later paranoia
- Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3): can I be myself? Conflict leads to external locus of control.
- Initiative vs guilt (3-6): can I act? Conflict leads to either being too afraid to act or overcompensating by showing off
- Industry vs inferiority (6-12): can I be competent? Conflict leads to low self esteem and self efficacy
- Identity vs role confusion (12-20): who am I? Conflict leads to lack of personality/identity.
- Intimacy vs isolation (20-40): can I love? Conflict leads to isolation and inability to form true relationships.
- Generativity vs stagnation (40-65): can I make a difference? Conflict leads to boredom or self-centeredness.
- Integrity vs despair (65+): did I live a good life? Conflict leads to bitterness and fear of death.
- Influence of social factors on identity formation: you are influenced by those around you
- Influence of individuals (e.g., imitation, looking-glass self, role-taking)
- Imitation: we imitate role models, peers, especially those similar to us and those we identify with
- Looking-glass self: you're friends see you as funny. Your boss sees you as lazy. Your ex sees you as dumb. Your looking-glass self is a combination of all of these different perceived versions of you by other people.
- Role-taking: pretending to be or experimenting with other identities. Eg: play house, play doctor, etc.
- Influence of groups (e.g., reference group): reference group = who we compare ourselves to. If your reference group is a bunch of over-achievers with 40+ MCAT scores, you'll never be happy with yourself. However, if your reference group is the average med school applicant, you'll be happy with a 30+ MCAT score.
- Influence of culture and socialization on identity formation: we observe things around us, imitate it, and identify with it. Thus, culture and socialization shapes who you are.