Demographic Structure of Society
- Aging and the life course
- Age cohorts: millennials, generation x, baby boomers, etc
- Social significance of aging: elderly = needs social security and medicare = taken care of by young workforce. Baby boomers = large aging population.
- Sex versus gender: sex = biological male/female. Gender = behavioral/psychological male/female.
- The social construction of gender: we can't tell directly if someone is XX or XY. Therefore, use have an agreed-upon set of characteristics that define male and female. Eg: wearing a skirt is a female characteristic constructed by society.
- Gender segregation: bathrooms, sports, etc.
- Race and ethnicity
- race = your outward appearance. Ethnicity = the culture you identify with.
- The social construction of race: we classify people into races based on outward appearance.
- Racialization: ascribing a racial identity onto someone.
- Predominantly black/white neighborhoods racialize newcomers, and will either welcome them or reject them based on their race.
- Corporations racialize employees and promote/limit their advancement up the corporate ladder.
- Racial formation: we construct/form races to justify treating people differently. Eg: slavery, genocide, who to be friends with, etc.
- Immigration status
- Patterns of immigration: immigration is increasing, most of which is from Mexico, Caribbean, and India.
- Intersections with race and ethnicity: race and ethnicity are different things that can overlap or be different. Eg: being Caucasian can mean you are Greek, French, Irish, etc. If you are Black, but you are born in France and lived your whole life there, you can also call yourself French.
- Sexual orientation: heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual
Demographic Shifts and Social Change
- Theories of demographic change (i.e., Malthusian theory and demographic transition)
- Malthusian theory = population grows exponentially and will eventually outgrow its resources. War, famine, disease bring the population back down to a sustainable level (positive checks). Population control (preventive checks) such as later marriage also keeps the population from outgrowing its resources.
- Demographic shift = changes in population makeup, including birth and death rates (demographic transition)
- Demographic transition = changes in birth and death rates a society goes through as it develops
- stage 1: preindustry society = both birth rate and death rates are high
- stage 2: better conditions = death rate decreases
- stage 3: better population control = birth rate decreases
- stage 4: industrialized society = both birth and death rates are low
- Population growth and decline (e.g., population projections, population pyramids)
- Growth: birth rate > death rate
- Decline: death rate > birth rate
- Population projection = estimate population at future date
- Population pyramids: bottom heavy = population growth. Top heavy = population decline. Side skew = gender imbalance.
- Fertility, migration, and mortality
- Fertility and mortality rates (e.g., total, crude, age-specific)
- Mortality = death per population per year
- Total fertility rate = total number of babies the average woman has in her lifetime in a population
- Crude fertility rate = babies per population per time
- Age-specific rates = rates for an age bracket
- Patterns in fertility and mortality: developed nations have low fertility and low mortality. Underdeveloped nations have high fertility and high mortality.
- Push and pull factors in migration
- Push = why you want to leave this place = lack of jobs, natural disasters, descrimination, etc
- Pull = why you want to go to the other place = better paying jobs, promise of a better life, etc
- Social movements
- Relative deprivation: what is considered poor in the US is different than what is considered poor in Africa. We compare our haves and have-nots to those around us.
- Organization of social movements
- Proactive = promote change
- Reactive = resist change
- Organizations = facilitate social movements = NAACP, PETA, etc
- Movement strategies and tactics: advertising, protests, formation of organizations, etc
- globalization = interaction and integration of nations
- Factors contributing to globalization (e.g., communication technology, economic interdependence): globalization is made possible by technology, and driven by the need to trade.
- Perspectives on globalization
- proponents: economic growth and development
- criticisms: colonialism, inequality, cultural assimilation
- Social changes in globalization (e.g., civil unrest, terrorism): cultural assimilation, colonialism, inequality can cause civil unrest and terrorism.
- Urbanization = dense area of population where people migrate to = cities
- Industrialization and urban growth: industrialization = more manufacturing = more need for workforce concentrated in one area = more jobs = urban growth
- Suburbanization and urban decline: with better transportation and the ability to work at home, many people prefer to live in the suburbs (city outskirts), where there is less crime, noise and pollution. This depopulation leads many areas of the city abandoned, contributing to urban decline.
- Gentrification and urban renewal. Gentrification = arrival of wealthy people into poor urban areas, raising rent and property values. Urban renewal = clearing slums in cities and redeveloping it.