Habituation and Dishabituation (PSY)
Associative Learning (PSY)
- Classical conditioning (PSY, BIO): stimulus -> biological response
- Neutral, conditioned, and unconditioned stimuli
- neutral stimuli -> no response. Eg: Bell sound prior to Pavlov's dog's training
- conditioned stimuli -> acquired response. Eg: Kitchen bell sound triggers Pavlov's dog to salivate
- unconditioned stimuli -> natural response, no need for conditioning. Eg: Smell of steak triggers salivation
- Conditioned and unconditioned response
- conditioned response = the response to conditioned stimuli
- unconditioned response = the response to unconditioned stimuli
- Processes: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination
- acquisition: learning the association. Eg: dog learns to salivate because Pavlov always gives them food after ringing the bell
- extinction: losing the association. Eg: if Pavlov stops giving dog food after ringing the bell.
- spontaneous recovery: association returns after extinction, but never as strong as before.
- generalization: Eg. Dog salivates to anyone ringing a bell
- descrimination: Eg. Dog salivates only to Pavlov rining the bell
- Operant conditioning (PSY, BIO): behavior -> consequences
- Processes of shaping and extinction: reinforcement shapes a behavior. When the reinforcement no longer happens, the behavior relapses, it's called extinction.
- Types of reinforcement: positive, negative, primary, conditional
- positive reinforcement: behavior -> reward -> more of that behavior. Eg: study for your exam, and I'll reward you with a good grade
- negative reinforcement: behavior -> less punishment -> more of that behavior. Eg: study for your exam, and I'll stop giving you bad grades
- primary reinforcer = natural rewards = food, drink, pleasure
- secondary reinforcer = unnatural rewards = money, grades
- Reinforcement schedules: fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-interval
- fixed-ratio: behavior is rewarded every time or every nth time
- variable ratio: instead of rewarding exactly every nth time, it's rewarded maybe the 1st time, then 4th time, then 2nd time, etc
- fixed interval: behavior is rewarded again only after a fixed time interval, like 60 seconds
- variable interval: instead of waiting exactly 60 seconds, the time interval may be 90 seconds, then 20 seconds, etc
- Punishment: opposite of reinforcement, a deterrent to behavior.
- Escape and avoidance learning
- Escape: you touch a caterpillar, it stings you, you jerk away
- Avoidance: you learn to not touch a caterpillar
- The role of cognitive processes in associative learning
- Latent learning: passively soaking up knowledge
- Problem solving: step back, think, and come up with a solution
- Instincts: mother goose will protect her eggs. If you try to teach a goose to abandon eggs, it won't work because it goes against their instinct, this process is called instinctive drift.
- Biological processes that affect associative learning (e.g., biological predispositions, instinctive drift) (PSY, BIO)
Observational Learning (PSY)
- Modeling: copying others
- Biological processes that affect observational learning
- Mirror neurons: a neuron that fires both when you perform an action and when you see another perform the same action. Thus, it's also responsible for empathy: if you see someone else hurting, you hurt also
- Role of the brain in experiencing vicarious emotions: vicarious emotion = feeling what other feel. Empathy = feeling an emotion that you share. Vicarious = feeling an emotion even if you don't share it. Eg: seeing someone skateboard, you're like wow that must be so fun, even though you never skateboarded before.
- Applications of observational learning to explain individual behavior: loving family makes someone a loving person. Abusive family makes someone an abusive person.
Theories of Attitude and Behavior Change (PSY)
- Elaboration likelihood model: two extremes on how individuals respond to persuasion, most are somewhere in the middle
- central route processing: think, analyze, then draw conclusions
- peripheral route processing: superficial details like how likable the speaker is, catchphrases, slogans
- Social cognitive theory: we learn how to behave by observing others in society instead of trial and error
- Factors that affect attitude change (e.g., changing behavior, characteristics of the message and target, social factors)
- Changes in your behavior -> observed by others -> Changes attitude
- Message -> influences target -> affects attitude
- Social = environment -> influences individual attitudes